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Pathogens


Campylobacter jejuni - a species of curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria commonly found in animal feces. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world

Clostridium botulinum - a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that produces several toxins. The best known are its neurotoxins, subdivided in types A-G, that cause the flaccid muscular paralysis seen in botulism.

Cyclospora cayetanensis - a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps other primates. It has been linked in the United States from fecally-contaminated imported raspberries and was virtually unknown before about 1990, but has been on the rise since. The health risk associated with the disease is usually confined to adult foreigners visiting endemic regions and acquiring the infection: this is why C. cayetanensis has been labeled as causing "traveler’s diarrhea."

Escherichia coli O157:H7 - an enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli and a cause of foodborne illness.[1] Infection often leads to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure, especially in young children and elderly persons. Transmission is via the fecal-oral route, and most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef or ground pork, swimming in or drinking contaminated water, and eating contaminated vegetables.

Hepatitis A -(formerly known as infectious hepatitis and epidemical virus) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (Hep A), an RNA virus, usually spread the fecal-oral route; transmitted person-to-person by ingestion of contaminated food or water or through direct contact with an infectious person. Tens of millions of individuals worldwide are estimated to become infected with Hep A each year. The time between infection and the appearance of the symptoms (the incubation period) is between two and six weeks and the average incubation period is 28 days.

Listeria monocytogenes - a facultative anaerobe, intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of listeriosis. It is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens, with 20 to 30 percent of clinical infections resulting in death.[1] Responsible for approximately 2,500 illnesses and 500 deaths in the United States (U.S.) annually, listeriosis is the leading cause of death among foodborne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella and Clostridium botulinum.

Noroviruses - a genetically diverse group of single-stranded RNA, non enveloped viruses in the Caliciviridae family. The viruses are transmitted by fecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person contact, and via aerosolization of the virus and subsequent contamination of surfaces. Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus affects people of all ages.

Salmonella - a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella which grade in all directions

Shigella - a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella causes disease in primates, but not in other mammals.

Vibrio - a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a curved rod shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.